Barley Fodder: From Trials to Production

11-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 010

We have some really happy alpacas and llamas at Paca Pride Guest Ranch with the ramping up of our production system for growing barley fodder mats for their winter diet. Even the chickens are enjoying pecking around for the rogue barley grains in the mats. What started out earlier this year as a trial to explore producing micro-greens, or fresh sprouts, for the herd (see previous blog entries) has really turned into something that is quite inspiring and, so far, we’re glad for taking the risk.

Barley sprouts are a superior feed for ruminants that takes a small amount of grain and, via a hydroponic growing process, turns it into a highly digestible, fresh mat in 7-9 days giving a high yield in a very 11-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 003small footprint of space. This approach represents a reduction in feed costs as we change from a diet of dry hay and dry pelleted grain rations to a diet of  fresh greens supplemented with hay for fiber and roughage.  Commonly laid claims of barley sprouts tout them as superior nutrition; vitamin and mineral saturation and availability; phytic acid reduction giving a PH balanced diet; increases in Omega 3, amino acids, and natural hormones.  While benefits like this always sound great, livestock owners should explore the feed values represented in a product with relation to cost. However, as we have found when testing for nutrition, a dry feed analysis of this fresh product does not necessarily translate; to do a dry feed analysis you must first dry the fodder sample, essentially ending up with hay, which is what gets tested for nutritional value. But that’s like comparing apples to oranges. A dry grain of barley is only 30% digestible, a barley sprout is 80% digestible. A dried sample of barley fodder is not the same as a fresh sprout in terms of nutritional benefits either. So, be careful in knowing the basis of any calculations you are doing when looking at nutritional values of a fresh vs. dry feed product. Our conclusions have so far led us to believe that our fresh salad bar offering will not only save money, but also be healthier.

Our current production system is taking 6lbs of barley grain and turning it into a 36-40lb fodder mat. That’s over a six fold increase in weight!

The process is simple, but the operational parameters demand a bit of attention. First let’s look at the steps we go through when we visit our fodder room, once a day, for both harvest and grain prep chores, which are taking approximately 20 minutes. Then, we’ll talk about the nuances to be aware.

11-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 049

Each day, we are dealing with 2 trays in our system for loading with pre-soaked grain and 2 trays for harvesting a final product to feed to the herd (about 80lb!)  In the first step, the grain is prepared for a 24 hour soaking period that loosens the hard seed hull and triggers the germination process. For this we use two 5 gallon buckets; one is drilled with numerous sieve holes, large enough to drain water easily and small enough that the grain doesn’t fall through. This bucket sits inside the second bucket allowing the seed to soak and then lifted and easily drained for spreading in a tray.  The bottom bucket is the one we use initially to wash and rinse the grain seed removing any chaff and debris that floats to the top of the water with a spoon strainer. (In fact, we actually use the leftover soak water after draining the previous days seed to wash our next day’s seed in.) We add 12 lbs of grain and after a bit of stirring and straining the debris, we pour the washed grain into the bucket with the holes, then placing the drain bucket back into the wash bucket. It gets fill with water and chlorine bleach is added at a rate of 1 tablespoon per gallon for sanitizing the seed and killing any mold or yeast that may be on the grain hulls.  The soaking seed sits until we come back the next morning.

11-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 020As far as the chore list goes, preparing the next day’s batch of seed is actually our last step. Our first task is harvesting 2 of the finished trays from the system. We simply pull the trays out, empty the fodder mat in one piece into a tote for transporting to the animal feeders.  The trays get rinsed and examined for any grain or roots blocking the drains, then placed back in their spots on the grow shelves ready for use again. In our new production system, the trays sit lengthwise onto shelves that are 48” deep and allow the drain fittings to simply hang over a gutter system that directs the runoff to the drain. No pipe fittings to plug or unplug from the trays. Each tray has it’s own 1/4” irrigation tube hanging from the water distribution line right above. The only thing to watch out for is that the irrigation tube is properly flowing into the tray seated below it.

11-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 025 We then turn our attention to spreading yesterday’s soaking grain into 2 trays. For these flood-and-drain trays, 13”x40”, we have settled (somewhat) on a seeding rate of 6lbs of grain per tray determined by how much soaked grain it takes to spread 1/4” deep (we’re actually thinking we can go lower towards 5lbs).  The seed is simply scooped out with a pre-marked measuring tub and the tray shaken until it looks evenly distributed.  The tray is then set back in its spot on the shelves, checking that it’s irrigation tube is in place, until it is ready to harvest. After spreading the pre-soaked seed, we prepare a new batch for soaking as described above.

The process described above is currently taking around 20 minutes from start to finish, once a day. Most of the work is done by the system itself. Here’s how it plays out over the course of 7 days

11-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 02811-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 02911-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 03111-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 03311-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 03611-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 03811-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 04011-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 009

11-27-12 Barley Fodder Production System 002

From our trials this year we learned quite a bit about the operational parameters that must be maintained in order to assure, not only good growth and production, but also to avoid problems with mold and fermentation. So here’s a general rundown of things to be concerned about:

Growing Environment – The grow room itself should be run as clean as possible. This is not a project that does well in a dirty environment. We’re not talking donning hazmat suits, but I wouldn’t exactly approach this project in a greenhouse either. Having a dedicated fodder room not only gives you control of its cleanliness, but also the other important factor, the temperature.  Ideally, barley is a cold weather crop and actually performs best in temps that are around 60F degrees. Having a grow space that can be temperature controlled is critical to this operation. A room that goes above 70F degrees will not only experience poor performance, but will also be more likely to see mold develop too.  Humidity has not been a challenge as of yet, but our levels are measuring between 40-70% depending upon outside conditions. High humidity may require ventilation to circulate fresh air.

11-27-12 Barley Fodder 007Seed Prep – This operation requires the use of a sink for rinsing and cleaning trays as well as for preparing the batches of seed. We use household bleach during the pre-soak process only, not during the actual grow cycle. This little bit of bleach (1TBSP to 1GAL ratio) sanitizes the seed quite well.  Concerns about the use of this chemical abound and there are numerous opinions about whether to use it or some other product that is non-toxic. For us, bleach is cheap, readily available, and losses it’s effectiveness after 24-36 hours. Since it is only used during the pre-soak, it doesn’t damage the barley grain itself so much as effectively kills any bacteria and mold spores on its surface. Once the seed is spread in the trays, the first watering cycle gives it a good rinse as well assuring no chlorine bleach reaches the final product. Having mold free trays are much more important to us than concerns presented by a diluted bleach solution, but it is imperative that with whatever preparation is done, some sort of sanitizer is used to clean the grain hulls during the wash and pre-soak stage.

Water – To recycle or not to recycle is always a question that gets asked. We firmly fall into the fresh water is best category. Recycling water via a reservoir leads to a bevy of problems that are detrimental to operation.  If one tray has a problem, recycling water will spread that problem quickly.  In fact, water usage is rather minimal when comparing the yields of this type of operation to watering a field to grow the same amount of grass. Our water cycle lengths are simply determined by the amount of time it takes a tray filled with soaked seed to get covered, or flooded, with water. In this system, that is a 4 minute long cycle.  Trays that are further along and have considerable root mass, actually need less water; longer watering times can cause the more mature trays to overflow. It’s this last point that makes the overflow drain a thankful precaution in the later days of growth when some of the roots can grow into the drain and slow the flow of water.  Our watering schedule is set for 4 times a day: 8am, Noon, 4pm, 8pm.  We scheduled no watering during our “night” period when the lights are off. We also were keen to schedule our fodder room chores of harvesting and spreading to happen at least an hour or two after the 8am watering to assure the trays being harvested have had enough time to drain.

Light – We set our lights for the room on a timer that is 16 hours on and 8 hours off to simulate a day and night. Currently we use a few CFL blubs for the main lighting source but are also in the process of securing LED rope lights to dispel the darker shadows at the back of the shelves. A little bit of light serves well to green up the sprouts along with encouraging the barley to stretch a bit towards the light.  No intense HID lighting or grow lights that give off heat should be used for this operation.

11-27-12 Barley Fodder 002Flooring – Let’s just say that when you are setting up a DIY operation like this, you are bound to experience the mishaps, and it usually involve some flooding.  We’re glad we bought a remnant piece of linoleum for our floor so that clean up of any water becomes easy. So far we’ve had two instances of flooding in the fodder room. The first was due to an irrigation line not being properly placed in a tray (oops! user error!). It was a minor flood from just one tray. The second flood was experienced about a week into operation and was much worse. It was caused by the gutter system backing up where a mesh screen was inserted as a last chance pre-caution to catch any rogue seed before it flowed out of the room.  What happened, however, was that the starchy runoff from a week started to clog the filter and caused the lowest gutter to overflow on to the floor. We have since removed that mesh screen (oops! over-design! turns out the mesh screen was overkill as the tray drains are doing a really good job keeping the barley grains in the tray.)

Our next steps with this operation, now that it has been successfully integrated into our farm system, is measuring.  We have started rationing our hay as well as weighing the fodder mats. Next June, coming shearing time, we’ll be measuring how much hay we have left in the barn along with measuring the amount of fiber harvested from the alpacas.  We’ll be comparing the results of this coming harvest to the prior year’s to see if fiber production is impacted. Of course, we’ll also be measuring the bottom line of costs too!

UPDATE: We now sell our grow trays! see this posting: http://pacapride.wordpress.com/2013/02/26/barley-fodder-grow-trays-now-for-sale/

Intrigued by this article? Be sure to watch our companion video of our Fodder Room Procedures here:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hes3ZhvjtqY

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39 Responses to Barley Fodder: From Trials to Production

  1. David H. says:

    I just wanted to say thank you so much for sharing your knowledge with us. I have read every post, comment, and response on your site about this topic. As an IT guy, I love your scientific experimentation approach to this. I spent several days looking at other sites, videos, and blogs trying to piece together the information that would help me design a system for our horses (6 horses in Colorado) . Honestly, your site has provided more concise, detailed descriptions and clarification of your reasoning than all of the other sites combined. I now believe that this is something we can do and am really looking forward to getting started. Thank you for taking the time required to document your experiences and share them with others. It is so appreciated!

    • David says:

      Thanks David!
      I hope that by sharing information freely, it’ll help others become successful with this.

      If you or others have found benefit from my insights, please consider supporting us with a donation. (See the Support Us Tab)

      Regards,
      David

  2. Natja says:

    Just wanted to thank you for all of the wonderful information. We are building a fodder system for our cows and sheep at the moment to help offset the price of hay here in the post-drought Midwest. One concern that I have is about switching the feeds. Were you ever concerned about bloat from such a rich feed? Our animals have already been on hay for two months (we purchased animals and pastured prairie in the middle of a drought, not optimal) and I worry that switching them rapidly would cause stomach problems. Any ideas about this? I don’t know if bloat is an issue in llamas, but if it is I would appreciate any ideas about how slow to take the transition. Thanks! Natja

    • David says:

      I would recommend checking with your vet about issues like bloat with changes in diet. They may be able to come up with a plan that fits your livestock needs. As for my herd of alpacs and llamas, we always try to ease into diet changes, but have had no problems with them having the fodder and dry hay for fiber and roughage.

  3. Matt V says:

    Hi David, Thanks for the update. I’m following closely. I am part of thesurvivalpodcast.com community. They just did an introductory show on fodder systems and I wanted to point them here for reference. You have been a great resource! They are a great group of levelheaded people but wanted your permission before I posted a link to you…

  4. Hello there, I am really enjoying your blog. Well written and nicely done. I have been looking at fodder systems for over a year now, reading about them and trying to determine how to do this on the cheap / reasonable compared to the enclosed systems offered by foddersolutions…

    I have a cinder block building in Northern Nevada with a cement slab that I am thinking of sectioning off for a “grow room”. I thought I would ask your opinion. The space I would use has a small 3×3 window, and I am thinking of putting in a window A/C unit for temperature control , as well as supplying heat in the winter.

    The building stays reasonably cool in the summer, but can still get hot. My first question is, what would you recommend I use to section off a small say 12 x 12 or 12 x 16 area ( for starters ) from the building which is considerably large. I was considering using greenhouse plastic or heavy duty poly vinyl tarps… What are your thoughts on this?

    Also, I was wondering, if I made a donation to you, if I could get a supply list from you and assembly directions.

    Also, did you build your own rack for your trays? If so, I would love intructions / material list for that as well.

    I just wanted to also say THANK YOU for the amazing WELL written blog, the wonderful photos. I have several horses and in Northern Nevada, hay is really high here and there is no pasture. So this is something I have been dreaming of for a while. My goal is to be able to support my horses and all the horses boarded on my facility, so that would be around 15 – 20 head. I’d like to start small then eventually turn that entire brick building into a fodder production room.

    Again, thanks!!!

    • David says:

      You are most welcome, Aislinn! Glad you are finding the sharing of our experiences with barley fodder so helpful! :)

      As far as your room and sectioning it off, I can’t tell much from your description about the style of building whether you might have to be more robust in your sectioning off of a room. We chose to frame and insulate a room in our barn so that heating and cooling it could remain under tight control. While using plastic or vinyl may partition your area from dust and dirt, it might make it more difficult to keep under climate control. If you could frame in a room, proper, this might prove the best long term solution. However, for starters, and to gain experience with this type of application, using what you’ve got on hand is probably ok for proof-of-concept if you can control your grow temps.

      As far as supply list goes, the most I’ve purchased, with regard to the actual grow system, was the grow trays and drain fittings. Everything else was salvaged. You can build wood shelving to fit your trays on, and use some gutters to drain the trays (see more pictures of our fodder room on our Facebook page to discern the setup) all from materials salvaged. In designing my shelving to hold the trays, I’ve used pressure-treated 2×4’s (because I had them) to make a frame, and then placed wood shelves (old warehouse shelving we salvaged) on that frame. Be sure to space your shelves at least 12″ apart, and if using the same trays, there is no need to add a tilt to the shelves. It’s a rather basic set up that you could figure out from some of the pictures I’ve posted.

      If you do find you have other questions, or would like to talk more thoroughly about design and operating considerations, I offer $40 Fodder primers, either on farm or by phone. Some people can look at the photos and put a system like this together, some benefit from a phone session or visit to learn more about the operational procedures. I can accept MC/VISA by phone for phone consultations. Along with that, I can provide email support and share a copy of a PDF presentation I’ve given on the topic.

  5. kim says:

    Hi, David! My first tray yielded 5.8 pounds per pound. I have a wood/4×8 setup at this point. My top 2 trays are not doing well. Need more “tilt” to the unit to allow for better run off. At this point my set up is from seed to feed in 10 days. I think I have temp and humidity lined out for faster growth. We shall see. CO2 is off until we get the rest of the environment going. Thank you for all your sharing! Kim

  6. Alan says:

    I was wondering what brand water timer you are using? There seems to be a lot of different ones out there. Great looking setup!

    • David says:

      Hi Alan,
      No particular brand to note, but given that my goals have been to design a system using parts on hand, salvaged parts, and items purchased from the local hardware store, there is nothing special about the parts I’m using except for the actual grow trays. When I did go to purchase a timer for the water, I was looking for certain functionality: it must allow water cycles as low as 1 minute to any length I want, it must allow multiple watering cycles to occur at specified times. The current timer I have is a typical one for sale for garden irrigation: battery operated, digital, and programmable. Seek out something similar from a hardware store in your area.

  7. after reading all this we will consider this as a workable system for our farm but not for this year we are still setting our goals here in Alberta

  8. Tammy says:

    Thank you so much for all your dedication and sharing with us. I have messed around with this but not much luck, having trouble with molds so I know it is too wet. How much water do you run in the trays at each watering? Or do you run it for so long. I am just setting up a better system and can hardly wait to get it up and running. We just built a new garage and put a 5 x 10 bathroom in. Living in Iowa we have to keep it heated for the winter months. I am going to set it up in there. It will be an awesome spot and I can reuse the heat we are wasting to keep the pipes from not freezing. It it works I can add a window air unit for the summer. I have horses and would love to use this for their diet. Again thank you so much for sharing your knowledge!!! It is greatly appreciated.

    • David says:

      Hi Tammy,

      Be sure to peruse the comments to this blog article as well as read the other fodder articles on our blog. Your questions are all addressed within them.

      Beyond that, if you require assistance in troubleshooting your operation, we do provide phone/email support for a fee via MC/VISA. Just send us an email request via the contact information on our website at http://www.PacaPride.com

  9. Pingback: From Seed to Feed in 8 days: Barley Fodder Sprouting Trials | Paca Pride Guest Ranch

  10. So awesome thank you for posting!

  11. Pingback: MAKE | Got Livestock? Feed Them Hydroponically Homegrown Barley Sprouts

  12. Pingback: Got Livestock? Feed Them Hydroponically Homegrown Barley Sprouts - IT Clips

  13. Jerry Carter says:

    Looking forward to the ROI analysis. This certainly raises the bar for feed quality and animal health over dry fodder. If it’s cost effective this is something I’d be interested in helping people set up as the system seems to have a lot of plus side to it.

    • David says:

      The Fresh micro-greens approach has certainly led me to become almost evangelical about it, Jerry. We’ve officially finished our winter out here, but have yet to start pasture grazing in full. In the past, by the time January comes around, I’m usually calling around for some more hay. As of almost mid-April, I still have a very good portion (about 1.5 ton) left of the 7 tons of hay I purchased. My hay use has dropped between 1/3rd and 1/2 (closer to the 1/2) and all pelleted grain supplements have been stopped (a $200 a month savings at the vet recommended dosage, $100 savings at the dosage I was giving). My animals are looking really healthy. By January, my reaction in examining fleeces usually leaves me wondering if they are ever going to get longer by shearing, but this past January, it was obvious that a longer fiber staple length could be seen on all my alpacas. My current batch of barley grain was the most expensive I’ve paid at $.25 per lb. So, using that as a basis of calculating cost, my monthly feed cost is around $75 to produce 1500lbs of fresh fodder. Add the reduction in hay usage, increased health and fiber production, and my ROI is already achieved. Shearing is in June, so we’ll have some solid weights to compare to last year’s clip. However, I’m not having any regrets adding this system to my operation. Sourcing barley vs. hay locally is also a bonus: in Western WA, good hay is imported from outside the region, but barley can be grown locally.

      • Jerry Carter says:

        David – thanks for the response! We use our neighbors alpaca dung, cured 2 or 3 years, as organic matter on our native clay soil (turned in) and it’s great stuff. I wonder if you would be able to trade the fertilizer value of the dung for some of your grain cost, or use it to nourish a part of your own crop of barley. I know closed loop systems are technically a pipe dream but the planner in me wants to move towards that goal all the time. Perhaps I should look into trying to grow barley for my neighbors alpacas. :-)

      • David says:

        We run a permaculture here, so in fact that alpaca compost collected over the winter goes right back out to the pastures and garden grow beds. Our winter sacrifice paddocks are allowed to accumulate alpaca dung without being picked up, instead we just cover it with the rakings from the dry lot area for a deep bedding approach. Then in the Spring, the animals are pulled off of that and a wheat crop is planted (for bread flour).

  14. jagan mohan reddy says:

    David
    I read your hard work and started in my place. It really worked well. I am from INDIA and having 100 cows. I really say you have done a wonderful job. I once again say thank you for sharing your knowledge.

    • David says:

      Namaste Jagan!

    • Commander Rao says:

      Hi David/Jagan Mohan Reddy,

      Namaste ! I am Commander Rao (retd) from Bangalore,India.

      Please refer to the following message: I quote:
      “jagan mohan reddy says:April 15, 2013 at 5:27 am
      David
      I read your hard work and started in my place. It really worked well. I am from INDIA and having 100 cows. I really say you have done a wonderful job. I once again say thank you for sharing your knowledge.” Unquote.

      I have a small dairy farm in Bangalore and constructed shelves for the trays and would like to progress further with guidance from Mr Jagan Mohan Reddy,since he has already implemented a system .Would be grateful for email/mobile link to him.My mail ID is: “cdrdrm@gmail.com” and mob:09535356345. Thanks in advance.

    • David says:

      Namaste!
      Please see the comment from Commander Rao, also in India.
      He requests a contact with you.

  15. Do you feed a calcium supplement? All of the analysis results that I have seen show the calcium/phosphorus ratios to be in the 1:3 range. Have you seen any issues with young stock?

    • David says:

      I do not feed calcium supplements to alpacas and llamas. We run a fiber herd of males and geldings which we get from breeder herds in our area. So, we typically do not have young stock. Your vet will probably be your best source of information on this one.

  16. Jennifer says:

    We were set to harvest our first batch of fodder tomorrow and discovered mold today. Very disheartening. I think that we need more air circulating. Even though the room is well insulated its been getting high seventies and today it was 83. Installing an evaporative cooler now. We were changing water every few days. We’re going to start changing everyday. I guess its a lot of trial and error. Also rinsing seed better should help.

    • David says:

      Sounds like you are already aware of the two corrections you should be making:
      1) Get the temperature down, I recommend 65F average +-5F degrees.
      2) Use fresh water rather than recirculated water. Drain to waste.

  17. Commander Rao says:

    Dear David,
    We use Maize as a fodder crop, since these seeds are readily available , affordable and adopted to local climate .Compared to Barley , Maize seeds are larger and will occupy more height , for a given output from each tray. My questions are:(i)Does this necessitate modifications to the design of drains and tray height in your standard tray? (ii) Local climate averages are: Min Temp 59 -70F,Max temp 78-91F and RH 43-78%.Operating within these limits, what are the likely repercussions if I do not use any climate control methods at all and install the racks with trays in a shade-house and adopt a flow through method ,as recommended by you? (iii) What would be the daily water consumption for a 500kg/day system? (iv)With 8-day cycle , local farmers achieve a conversion of 10 in a basic hydroponic system here, but with about 10% loss in Dry Matter (DM). Since photosynthesis starts on day 4 or 5, I believe, this DM loss in 8-day cycle can be mitigated and even DM build–up can take place, if the cycle is extended to 10 days . Shelves can be appropriately spaced in height , retaining all other design aspects .Will be grateful for your comments on these 4 aspects. Thank you.

    • David says:

      Maize/Corn can certainly be used for sprouting, and you are correct about it being more adopted to your local climate.

      The trays we use would easily support them as a crop. No design modifications would be needed with the trays themselves.
      You may have to adjust your shelf spacing to be further apart than 12-14″.

      Having not tried to sprout maize myself, I cannot speak to the water consumption, or seed prep/soak. I look forward to hearing more from your trials with it. Maize/Corn could be an option for the more southern US states like Texas as well given the hotter climate. Grow cycle lengths are going to have the same challenges of trying to mitigate mold prevalence the longer they go. Keep in mind, that sprouting is not necessarily about getting the longest sprout possible. For the most part, the longer the grow cycle goes, there is a diminishing point of return for protein content. Of course all this is also affected by how consistently you can regulate your growing climate. Consistency in temps are still key in a sprouting application; we do not want many variations from daytime highs to nighttime lows. But again while maize sprouts may be able to withstand the variation, molds may be encouraged.

      As far as DM (dry matter basis) goes, just keep in mind the concept that the goal of sprouting is delivering a fresh, live plant for immediate consumption. A live sprout has many benefits over a dry matter hay. However, the goal in sprouting is the creation of protein for consumption, vs. fiber. Sprouts of all kind generally lack fiber content, which is why hay is still necessary part of any diet.

  18. KamalDeep says:

    Dear David
    Hello … Can we use aluminum trays in fodder machine?
    regards
    kamaldeep

  19. Rich says:

    Thanks for the great information you have shared. I have a few questions I have been growing Barley Fodder for 8 months now and will be selling it commercially next month. One thing I have noticed is that the seed that is closest to the drain side of my tray, say the last 3 to 6 inches does not grow as heavy a root mat. What is your thought on the causes? Next question is do you know of a way to get a longer shelf life with the finished product. Would refrigeration extend the mats at the seed height level from turning color and quality.
    Thanks much Rich
    Coosfarm.com

    • David says:

      Hi Rich, the most typical reason for seed at one end of a tray not sprouting is due to the accumulation of starchy solutes around it given poor drainage. This is most commonly seen in retrofitted trays that punch holes at one end and tilt the tray.
      In the trays we use, when this occurs near the drain end, it can mean that our temps are on the higher side than necessary. When temps rise a bit, any starchy solutes remaining in the tray are going to encourage yeast activity and that will also result in germination being inhibited for seed that is at the bottom of the seed bed. Another reason for seed left behind can be that your watering is not doing enough of a job to wash away those starchy solutes; you can try increasing the length of your watering cycle to encourage better washing during the watering cycle.

      Given that this product is intended to be served as a wet and live feed, extending shelf life after harvest becomes challenging in two ways: water weight diminishing, and freshness/mold control. Refrigeration is your best option if harvesting mats for later consumption. Roll up a mat and place in a plastic bag with as much air and excess water removed as possible.

  20. Pingback: Fodder Production: Further tips for successful sprouting | Paca Pride Guest Ranch

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